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Study of the dynamic states of water and effects of high-pressure homogenization on water distribution in tofu by using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance

Study of the dynamic states of water and effects of high-pressure homogenization on water distribution in tofu by using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance


Abstract


Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance was used to study two traditional types of tofu. The size of diffusive domainswas estimated based on diffusive exchangemodel. T2 parameters were used to monitor changes in themicrostructure and water distribution under different high pressure homogenization (HPH) conditions (50, 100, and 150 MPa). The T21 relaxation time significantly decreased with increasing pressure, and the tofu prepared using HPH-pretreated soymilk showed a compact protein network structure compared with the control sample. From the perspective of water distribution and water-holding capacity, 50 MPa was the appropriate pressure for pretreatment of soymilk. Significant correlationswere further detected among T21 relaxation time,water-holding capacity, and particle size. Therefore, T21 relaxation time could be used as the optimal indicator to reflect changes in the microstructure and water distribution in tofu. Industrial relevance: Themorphology andwater of tofu play important roles in its textural properties and sensory attributes. So a rapid and economic monitoring method for quality control of industrial manufacture of tofu is desperately needed. In the present study, time domain nuclear magnetic resonance was introduced to obtain more insights in the effects of ultra high pressure homogenization pretreatments of soymilk on morphology and water distribution of final tofu matrix. In conjunction with results of present study, LF-NMR was suggested to be a good tool for study and monitoring of tofu making.

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